Just before leaving Illinois I will send this photo and one other about Billy Caldwell, known as Sauganesh (He Speaks English), who negotiated those Treaties of Chicago on behalf of the People of Three Fires.
He was of mixed British and Mohawk ancestry, and was fluent in several languages including Anishinaabe. The US got him “appointed”
as “Chief” of the Potawatomi (Anishinaabe) Nation.
Under the new national policy of Indian Removal, the writing was on the wall. Not all, but most of the People of the Three Fires were forced to leave their lands and go into exile in Oklahoma, Kansas, Canada or else where. Billy Caldwell – who was said to have been a close companion of Tecumseh and the last man to see him alive, walking from the Battle of the Thames in Ontario on his own power with a fatal chest wound – Caldwell received s grant of 1600 acres on the Chicago River for his services to the US in negotiating these treaties.
That land is along the old Northwest Highway out of Chicago. I traveled it, dangerous as it is without a shoulder, for many miles.
I found this mural by the side of the road in a well to do area called Sauganesh.


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